"Pundits and business gurus often talk about how diversity can spark creativity and innovation. Diversity, they tell us, is supposed to be something beautiful: Different people come together to learn from one another and create an inclusive team that's more than the sum of its parts. Everyone brings something special to the table, and the collaboration of unique individuals leads to amazing new ideas. But it turns out that diversity is often more painful than beautiful—and that's exactly why it's so valuable in complex environments. It helps because it makes things harder."